Today, marathon diet is a carefully dialed science. Runners prepare their bodies to eat and drink during the race the identical approach they practice to run it.
It wasn’t at all times like this. A century in the past, runners didn’t map out when it was time to pop that 5th gel, and operating shops weren’t flush with blocks, beans, and chews promising to stop the dreaded bonk. Back then, midrace brandy swigs and aid-stationless programs had been the norm. How far have we come? We talked to marathon historical past consultants, operating fans, and modern-day racers to seek out out.
Boozy Runs Are the Best Runs
At the flip of the 20th century, marathoning appeared a lot totally different than it does at the moment. In the 1897 Boston Marathon, the race’s inaugural occasion, solely 15 males competed, in comparison with the nearly 15,000 men who ran this year. (Women weren’t even allowed to run it till 1972.) Modern support stations—lengthy tables of Gatorade and water and sponsor cubicles passing out gels, chews, or sweet—didn’t exist. Instead, every runner had handlers: individuals on bikes or in vehicles someplace alongside the course prepared to supply nourishment.
Fueling usually meant a shot of whiskey, brandy, or different alcohol. Spyridon Louis, winner of the marathon on the 1896 Olympics, sipped cognac with fewer than six miles remaining. The 1924 Paris Marathon featured a fluid station offering pours of wine to runners.
Midrace hydration wasn’t scientifically understood, and something aside from the laborious stuff whereas operating was frowned upon by those that ruled the game. “There was some sort of machismo ethos in running, where it was a sign of weakness to drink water when you were thirsty during exercise,” says Matt Fitzgerald, a licensed sports activities nutritionist, creator, and California-based operating coach. “So people would try not to.” Race organizers would discourage it as effectively: During the 1904 Olympic Games in St. Louis, solely 2 water stations had been accessible, the 2d of which appeared proper after the midway mark.
Looking again, “it was a terrible idea,” says Tom Derderian, longtime coach at the Greater Boston Track Club and creator of Boston Marathon: The History of the World’s Premier Running Event.
The Sports-Drink Revolution
According to Tim Noakes’ e book Waterlogged, it wasn’t till the 1960s that the significance of staying hydrated whereas protecting lengthy distances started to take maintain among the many operating neighborhood. And even then, it wasn’t till the mid-1970s that considerate hydration grew to become widespread observe. Although runners and race administrators sidelined the booze, they nonetheless had no actual idea of keep adequately hydrated and preserve vitality ranges throughout a race. An absence of easy-to-transport and nutrient-dense merchandise meant that runners turned to issues like oranges, salt, and decarbonated soda for fueling. They’d drink when thirsty, however not a lot roughly.
“It was spontaneous,” Derderian says. “ Whenever you had something available to drink, you did. Your only goal was to make sure that whatever drink you chose didn’t require a lot of digestion.”
The first main change got here with the invention of Gatorade in 1965 by a staff of scientists on the University of Florida School of Medicine. This new carbohydrate-electrolyte drink debuted on the soccer discipline and made its solution to mainstream operating after a number of scientific trials with distance runners. For the primary time, athletes may recreation their hydration in a approach that may stop thirst and restore sugar and electrolytes with out having to eat one thing.
It’s Not Just About the Liquids
In 1983, Brian Maxwell, a Canadian Olympic marathoner who at 1 level ranked 3rd on the earth, bonked laborious in a race and blamed the crash on low blood sugar. He started a grassroots marketing campaign to construct a product—often called PowerBar—and get it into the palms of endurance athletes, largely ultramarathoners at first. The bar grew to become a family identify by the top of the last decade.
As races grew to become extra aggressive and elite runners ratcheted up their PR efforts, stopping to unwrap a bar or unpeel a banana grew to become treasured time wasted. Gu, based in 1994, sought to supply concentrated vitality in a gel so athletes may simply replenish vitality with out stopping.
Now runners will tape the gels to their gasoline belts, round water bottles, or discover different methods to have them available to eat and transfer alongside shortly. It’s uncommon to see anybody operating with complete meals throughout a 26.2-mile race due to their inconvenience and the toll that consuming such meals whereas transferring may take in your physique.
Most sports activities nutritionists advocate runners soak up about 60 grams of carbohydrates per hour throughout a marathon. But “the human body was not meant to absorb nutrition during running,” Fitzgerald says. “It’s not too surprising that the things that tend to work best under these conditions are not natural foods, since you are doing something that’s unnatural to begin with. The normal rules of healthy eating are just flipped on their head as soon as you start running. You are not eating for health or longevity; you’re eating for performance.”
Fueling Gets Individualized
For months main as much as Nike’s Breaking2 Project in May, Nike scientists and consultants exhaustively studied its runners to see how they may extract peak efficiency from the human physique at will. When Eliud Kipchoge ran a 2:00:25, he set in movement the pattern towards extremely individualized race fueling throughout all ranges of runners, Brian Vaughan, CEO of Gu, says. Gu and different firms have began to discipline groups of scientists to determine sports activities diet for the person, with the aim of constructing such info accessible to each elites and amateurs. Companies like InsideTracker (although still contested for an absence of scientific certainty round its findings) analyze blood samples and declare to create particular coaching and diet plans for a given particular person based mostly on that knowledge.
“Sports nutrition in the last decade has exploded,” says Magda Boulet, vice chairman of innovation, analysis, and improvement at Gu and second-place finisher on the 2017 Western States 100-mile race. “There is so much effort into researching. I think we’ve been so focused on just optimizing the race-day performance. But we are so much smarter now, and we are looking at how sports nutrition can optimize your training as a whole.”