What’s the Best Way to Pace a Marathon?


One of the large questions within the buildup to Nike’s Breaking2 marathon final yr was the pacing technique. To run a two-hour marathon, must you plan to run at precisely two-hour tempo for the complete race? Should you begin a bit of faster to financial institution a while towards the specter of late-race slowdown (a fast-slow strategy referred to as “positive splits”)? Or must you maintain again initially to really feel good for so long as attainable, then use the thrill of the approaching end to speed up (a slow-fast strategy referred to as “negative splits”)?

In principle, you possibly can assemble fairly cheap physiological arguments for all 3 approaches. Several months earlier than the Breaking2 race, once I requested Nike’s scientific crew about their pacing plans, they nonetheless hadn’t determined. Part of the problem, they defined, is that pacing isn’t nearly physiology. They wanted to make sure that the 3 athletes they’d chosen have been absolutely comfy and assured about no matter technique they chose—and at that time, the athletes have been evenly break up. One needed optimistic pacing, one other needed adverse pacing, and the 3rd needed even pacing.

In different phrases, the “right” method to tempo a marathon is sophisticated. One method to achieve insights into what works finest is to get exterior the laboratory and research how the quickest marathons in historical past have been run. That’s what researchers in Spain, led by senior writer Jordan Santos-Concejero of the University of the Basque Country, have finished in a new study printed within the European Journal of Sport Science.

Drawing on knowledge collected by the Association of Road Running Statisticians, Santos-Concejero and his colleagues analyzed the pacing patterns of the newest 15 males’s world information within the marathon, courting again to Derek Clayton’s 2:09:36 in Fukuoka in 1967. They divided the race into eight 5K sections, plus a closing 2.195Okay ending part. Overall, the athletes tended to run the 2nd 1/2 of the race barely (just about negligibly) sooner than the primary 1/2.

Here’s what the first-half and second-half speeds appear like, as a share of general race velocity:

(European Journal of Sport Science)

On the floor, this appears like a fairly good endorsement of the even-split college of pacing. But there’s a catch. When the researchers break up the information into 2 teams, the information previous to 1988 confirmed a distinctively completely different pacing sample in comparison with the information since then.

Here’s what the splits from the 2 teams appear like over the 9 sections of the race (eight 5K sections plus 2.195Okay):

(European Journal of Sport Science)

The older “classic” information are characterised by a quick begin, a progressive slowdown after about 25Okay, then a final gasp of reacceleration within the closing 2.195Okay (although even that ending kick is slower than their general common race velocity). The newer “contemporaneous” information do precisely the alternative, beginning extra slowly than the eventual common tempo and accelerating after 25Okay.

So, what’s happening right here? The authors level out that the break level between the 2 eras occurs to coincide with Ethiopian runner Belayneh Dinsamo’s 1988 file. Of the older information, 3 have been set by Australians, 1 by a Welshman, and 1 by a Portuguese runner. Of the newer information, the tally is 4 by Kenyans, 3 by Ethiopians, 2 by a Moroccan-born runner, and 1 by a Brazilian runner.

Do East African runners tempo themselves otherwise? That’s a fraught query, however the authors level out earlier analysis (some by Santos-Concejero) suggesting that Kenyan elite runners are higher in a position to maintain oxygen levels in their brains throughout exhaustive train in comparison with runners of European origin. Perhaps, they speculate, there’s some hyperlink between mind oxygenation and the flexibility to speed up in the course of the 2nd 1/2 of a marathon. Interestingly, Ethiopian runner Abebe Bikila, who set a pair of marathon world information within the early 1960s (previous to the interval analyzed on this research), paced himself extra just like the “new” group of file setters.

The different large query is whether or not the shift to adverse splits is one of the simplest ways of working a quick marathon. In one other subanalysis, the authors calculate the “coefficient of variation” of the 9 subsegments of every race, which is a measure of how even or uneven the splits have been. Plotting that quantity through the years, there seems to be a slight development towards smaller variations, that means that runners now are likely to hold their tempo inside a narrower band for the complete race. The finest instance of that is the present file, Dennis Kimetto’s 2:02:57, which was noticeably extra even than earlier information.

With this in thoughts, the authors counsel that “a pacing strategy characterized by very little speed changes across the whole race may be the way to go in the future.” To be trustworthy, I feel the proof for this assertion is weak (the coefficient of variation knowledge isn’t very convincing), however I’m inclined to suspect that it’s appropriate, because of Occam’s razor, if nothing else. That, in the long run, is what Nike’s Breaking2 crew opted for, instructing its pacing crew to run at exactly two-hour tempo for so long as attainable.

In the true world, after all, the problem with completely even pacing is that it’s a must to know precisely how briskly you intend to run earlier than you even begin. It requires hindsight, and maybe some round logic, to conclude after the truth that one of the simplest ways to run a given time is to have began out at precisely that tempo. If we knew precisely what our capabilities have been earlier than each race, then attempting to run that tempo as evenly as attainable can be a no brainer.

But whenever you add the uncertainties inherent in actual life, with time flowing within the ahead path, you continue to should resolve whether or not you’re going to err on the facet of warning or ambition in your early pacing. And I’m unsure physiology will ever present a definitive reply to that, as a result of the “right” strategy depends upon your targets and the way you weight them. Is it 3:10 or bust for you? Then it is best to begin out at a 3:10 tempo. But if 3:15 or 3:20 are nonetheless significant secondary targets, then maybe beginning at a 3:13 tempo maximizes your general probability of a optimistic end result even when it makes it barely much less possible that you simply’ll hit 3:10.

I do assume Santos-Concejero and his colleagues are most likely appropriate that for future elite runners to maintain whittling away on the world file, they’ll should set out at world file tempo proper from the beginning and keep as even a tempo as attainable. The consequence, for these runners adequate to dream of information, will probably be plenty of spectacular flameouts—which may be enjoyable to observe however are much less enjoyable to take part in. For the remainder of us, aiming for a slight adverse break up nonetheless appears like a fairly good plan.

My new e-book, Endure: Mind, Body, and the Curiously Elastic Limits of Human Performance, with a foreword by Malcolm Gladwell, is now obtainable! For extra, be part of me on Twitter and Facebook, and join the Sweat Science email newsletter.

(Editor references)

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